is the easternmost state of India. Arunachal Pradesh borders with the state of Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast. Burma/Myanmar
lies towards the east, Bhutan towards the west, and Tibet to the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state. Though Arunachal Pradesh is administered as an Indian State, the People's Republic of China (mainland China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) claim portions of the state as South Tibet.
Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn lit mountains"in Sanskrit. It is also known as "land of the rising sun" ("pradesh" means "state" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Most of the people living in Arunachal Pradesh are of Tibeto-Burman
origin. 16% of the population are immigrants, including 30,000 Bangladeshi and Chakma expatriates, and migrants from other parts of India, notably Assam and Nagaland.Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the state.
The first ancestors of the tribal groups migrated from Tibet during the prehistoric period, and were joined by Thai-Burmese counterparts later. Except for the northwestern parts of the state, little is known about the history of Arunachal Pradesh, although the Adi tribe had legendary knowledge of the history. The earliest references to Arunachal are found in the era of Mahabharata
, Ramayana and other Vedic legends. Several characters, such as , King Bhismaka
, were referred to as people from the region in the Mahabharata
Recorded history was only available in the Ahom
chronicles during the 16th century. The tribal Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar
, came under the control of the Ahom
and the Assamese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858.
Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang shed new light on the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh. Paintings of the Hindu gods and altars remained untouched for many years. They attracted many local pilgrims. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, suggested that the Idu Mishmi had a local civilisation. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang monastery in the Tawang district, also provides historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal peoples. Historically, the area had a close relationship with Tibetan people and Tibetan culture, for example the sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso
was born in Tawang.
British map published in 1909 showing the Indo-Tibetan traditional border (eastern section on the top right
In 1913-1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Accord
. This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India
. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon
, drew up the 550 mile (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the imperial British Empire.The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet, however on the issue of the boder between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out. The Tibetan Government and British Government went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview. The Chinese position since then has been that since China had sovereignty over Tibet, the line was invalid without Chinese agreement. Furthermore, by refusing to sign the Simla documents, the Chinese Government had escaped according any recognition to the validity of the McMahon Line.
Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention
. However, this agreement(Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921, thus making the Simla Conference official. However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet the line had no serious challenges as Tibet had signed the convention, therefore it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935, when interest was revived by civil service officer Olaf Caroe. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937. In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of NEFA. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. Tibet, however, altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to the Tibetan district (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line.The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China was established in the late 1940s. With the PRC poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared the McMahon Line to be the boundary in November 1950, and forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area in 1951.The PRC has never recognized the McMahon Line. (In 1959 a suppressed Tibetan uprising resulted in PRC's abolition of Tibet's self-ruling government headed by the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala, India, where he continues to lead the Tibetan Government-in-Exile
. Maps published by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile now show the McMahon Line as the southern border of Tibet.
The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue was quiet during the next decade or so of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most of the NEFA. However, China soon declared victory and voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war has resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.
Of late, Arunachal Pradesh faces threat from resistance groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who were believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap.There were occasional reports of these groups harassing the local people.
Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit
, Changlang and Tirap
are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas.
In 2006 Bumla pass in Tawang was opened to traders for the first time in 44 years. Traders from both sides of the pass were permitted to enter each other's territories.
The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from China. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. While below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a climate which is temperate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience a humid sub-tropical climate, along with the hot summers and mild winters.
Arunchal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 80 to 160 inches (2,000 to 4,000 mm) annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea) and teak are the main economic species.
Arunachal Pradesh is divided into sixteen districts, each administered by a district collector, who sees to the needs of the local people. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army
has considerable presence due to the concern about Chinese intentions. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of it checkgates on its border with Assam.
Dorjee Khandu is Chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh
Districts of Arunachal Pradesh:
- Anjaw District
- Changlang District
- East Kameng
- East Siang
- Kurung Kumey
- Lohit District
- Lower Dibang Valley
- Lower Subansiri
- Papum Pare
- Tawang District
- Tirap District
- Upper Dibang Valley
- Upper Subansiri
- Upper Siang
- West Kameng
- West Siang
This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices estimated
by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
||Gross State Domestic Product
Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $706 million in current prices. Agriculture is the primary driver of the economy. Jhum, the local word for shifting cultivation, which was widely practised among the tribal groups has come to be less practiced. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometers of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation units and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are prohibited under law.
In Arunachal Pradesh 63% of total population belong to 19 major tribes and 85 other tribes. Most of them are either of Tibeto-Burman or Tai-Burmese
origin. Another 35% of the population are made up of immigrants, including 31,000 Bengali, Bodo, Hajong
and Chakma expatriates from Bangladesh, and immigrants from neighboring Assam, Nagaland and other parts of India. The largest major tribes include the Adi
, Galo, Nishi
, Khamti, Monpa and Apatani.
Literacy rose to 54.74% from 41.59% in 1991. The literate population numbers 487,796. 2001 census data by Government of India shows that
twenty percent of Arunachal's population are animist
, who follow animistic religions such as Donyi-Polo and Rangfrah. Thirty-five percent are Hindus
including the Nocte and Miri peoples. Another 13% are practicing Buddhists
Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet. Theravada Buddhism
is practiced by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 19% of the population are followers of the Christian faith.
There has been a law enacted to protect the indigeneous religions (e.g., Donyi-Poloism, Buddhism) in Arunanchal Pradesh against the spread of Christianity.
The state's airports are located at Daparjio, Ziro, Along, Tezu and Pasighat. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are mostly small and cannot handle many flights. When not connected by road, they were originally used for transportation of food. Arunachal Pradesh has two highways; the 336 km (205 miles) National Highway 52, completed in 1998, connects Jonai with Dirak.
Some Informations has been taken from Wikipedia
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