Birbhum


Winner of General Elections 2009 in Birbhum is SATABDI ROY (AITC)

Updated Election Results Details of Birbhum


Candidate NamePartySymbolAddressVote
Satabdi Roy AITCFlowers and Grass85 PRINCE ANWAR SHAH ROAD KOLKATA - 700033 486553
Braja Mukherjee CPMHammer Sickle and StarVILL - TILPARA (SOUTH)PO - SURIDIST - BIRBHUM425034
Tapas Mukherjee BJPLotusDOCTOR PARA PO + PS - RAMPURHAT DIST.- BIRBHUM47068
Asgar Ali (gajlu) SPBicycleVILL - BONORAMPUR PS - MURAROI DIST - BIRBHUM17177
Shib Ratan Sharma JMMBow & ArrowDUBRAJPUR DARBESPARA PO - DUBRAJPUR DIST - BIRBHUM15919
Radheshyam Singh BSPElephantNALHATI BAGANPARA WARD NO.-5 PO + PS - NALHATI DIST.- BIRBHUM13388
Moulana Najrul Hak AUDFLock and KeyVILL - SELARPUR PO - SAHAPUR DIST- BIRBHUM12354
Total Votes1017493


YearVoter Turnout PercentageWinner CandidatePercentagePartyRunnerup CandidatePercentageParty
2004 70.27 DOME RAM CHANDRA 51.45 CPM  GOPAL CHANDRA DAS 24.97 INC  
1999 70.33 Ram Chandra Dome 51.65 CPM  Dr. Madan Lal Choudhury 29.93 BJP  
1998 76.83 Dome Ram Chandra 49.07 CPM  Dr Madan Lal Choudhury 28.23 BJP  
1996 83.18 Ramchandra Dome 50.35 CPM  Mamata Saha 36.48 INC  
1991 75.21 Dome Ramchandra 49.71 CPM  Subhendu Mondal 25.47 INC  
1989 76.28 Dome Ramchandra 50.88 CPM  Badal Bagdi 41.77 INC  
1984 74.98 Gadahar Saha 50.32 CPM  Badal Bagdi 47.88 INC  
1980 67.18 Gadadhar Saha 51.91 CPM  Badal Chandra Bagdi 42.48 INC(I)  
1977 52.08 Gadadhar Saha 49 CPM  Birendaban Saha 38.04 INC 


Birbhum district is an administrative unit in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the northernmost district of Burdwan division—one of the three administrative divisions of West Bengal. The district headquarters is located at Suri. Often called "The land of red soil", Birbhum is noted for its topography and its cultural heritage which is unique and is somewhat different from that of the other districts in West Bengal. The western region of Birbhum is a bushy plateau, a part of the Chhotanagpur terrain. This region gradually merges with the fertile alluvial farmlands in the east. Replete with diversity, this land has inspired many cultural and religious movements in history. The Visva Bharati University at Santiniketan, established by Rabindranath Tagore, is one of the places Birbhum is internationally renowned for. Other than Tagore, another Nobel laureate Amartya Sen lived here. A culturally rich area, many festivals are celebrated in this district, including the notable Poush Mela.

Contents

Etymology

The name Birbhum comes probably from the term Land (Bhumi) of the Brave (Bir). Some have opined that the district bears the name of Bir kings who ruled in the area. Bir in Santali language means forests. Therefore, it could also mean a land of forests.

History

Prehistory

The area now known as Birbhum was inhabited from pre-historic times. Some of the archaeological sites related to 'Pandu Rajar Dhibi' of chalcolithic remains are located in Birbhum. Stone age implements have been found at several places in the district. According to the old Jain book Acharanga Sutra, the last (24th) great Tirthankara Mahavira had wandered through this land ("pathless country of Ladha (Rarh) in Vajjabhumi and Subbhabhumi (probably suhma)") in the 5th century, B.C. According to some historians, the spread of the Jain religion in the Rarh region was synonymous with the Aryanisation of the area. Based on Divyabdan, a Buddhist text, Dr. Atul Sur has inferred that Gautam Buddha probably traversed this area to go to Pundravardhana and Samatata.[10] The Rarh region was part of the Maurya empire. It was subsequently included in the empire of the imperial Guptas, Shashanka and Harshavardhana. After dismemberment of Harshavardhana’s empire, the region was ruled by the Palas till 12th century AD, when overlordship of the area passed into the hands of the Senas.[2] During the rule of the Pala dynasty Buddhism, particularly the Vajrayana cult, flourished here. In 7th century A.D., the Chinese traveller Xuanzang described some of the monasteries he visited.

Medieval age

The 13th century witnessed the advent of Muslim rule in the region. However, control over the western parts of the district appears to have been nominal, and the area was ruled by the local Hindu chiefs, known as the Bir Rajas. The three towns of Hetampur, Birsingpur and Rajnagar contain their relics. Minhaj-i-Siraj, the author of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri mentions about Lakhnur, the headquarters or thanah of the Rarh wing of the Muslim rule and an important frontier post. The location of Lakhnur, though not yet identified, falls in Birbhum. Mythology has it that the forests of Bajrabhumi (west Birbhum) were hot-spots of Hindu and tantric activities. According to historian Dr. Atul Sur, the solitude of the less populated jungles of Bajrabhumi made it an ideal place for sacred rituals. Some authors have called Birbhum by the name Kamkoti which relates to its tantric heritage. Tantrics (including the Vajrayana, Shaktas), and Buddhists established many temples for tantra sadhana rituals and Shakti worship. Birbhum has many Shakti Peethas such as Tarapith, Bakreshwar, Kankalitala, Fullara near Labhpur, Sainthia and Nalhati. One of the famous Shakti worshippers of Tarapith was Bamdev, popularly known as Bama Khyapa.

Modern era

During the time of British East India Company, there was no existence of any administrative unit by the name Birbhum till 1787, and this area was administratively a part of Murshidabad district. In 1787 when the official designation "District Beerbhoom" started the District was much bigger and included "Bishenpore" or Bishnupur (now part of Bankura district) till 1793. Till the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the Santhal Pargana was also part of Birbhum, the district thus sprawled up to Deoghar in the west. The immediate reason then for separating the western tribal majority areas was the Santhal rebellion of 1855-56, which was quelled. Sidhu and Kanu are remembered in Birbhum as martyrs of the uprising.

Geography

Situated between 23° 32' 30" (right above the tropic of cancer) and 24° 35' 0" north latitude and 87° 5' 25" and 88° 1' 40" east longitudes, and about 4,545 square kilometres (1,755 sq mi) in area, this district is triangular in shape. River Ajay forms the southern base whereas the apex of the triangle points to the north. The river forms the boundary between the districts of Birbhum and Bardhaman. The state of Jharkhand is located at the northern and the western border of Birbhum and the Murshidabad district is located at the east.[2][13] Geographically, this area lies at the north eastern end of the Chota Nagpur plateau, as it slopes down and merges with the alluvial plains of the Ganges. The western portion of the district is historically known as Vajjabhumi or Bajrabhumi. It is an undulating upland that is generally barren. The comparatively more fertile eastern portion, constituting the northeastern Rarh region, merges with the Gangetic plain. Vajjabhumi is also included in the Rarh region, and rest of Rarh is called Sumha to differentiate it from Vajjabhumi.

Climate

The climate on the western side is dry and extreme, but is relatively milder on the eastern side. During summer, the temperature can shoot well above 40 °C (104 °F) and in winters it can drop to around 10 °C (50 °F). It has been observed that rainfall is higher in the western areas as compared to the eastern areas. The annual average rainfall in Rajnagar is 1,405 millimetres (55.3 in) and in Nanoor it is 1,212 millimetres (47.7 in), mostly in the monsoon months (June to October).

Rivers

There are many rivers that flow over Birbhum, such as Ajay, Mayurakshi (Mor), Kopai, Bakreshwar, Brahmani, Dvarka, Hinglo, Chapala, Bansloi, Pagla etc. A project on the Mayurakshi that includes the Tilpara Barrage (near Suri), provides irrigation for about 600,000 acres (2,428 km²). Almost all the rivers originate higher up on the Chota Nagpur plateau and flow across Birbhum in a west-east direction. These river are furious during the monsoons but shrink during the dry summer months. The cyclical rotation of drought and floods of the rivers destroy lives and property, and adds to the difficulties of life in the region.

Economy

A common Birbhum village scene
Birbhum is primarily an agricultural district. Around 75% of the population is dependent on agriculture. While 159.3 km² (61.5 sq mi) of land is occupied by forests, 3,329.05 km² (1,285.4 sq mi) of land is used for agricultural purposes. 91.02% of the population live in the villages.

Agriculture

Rice, legumes, wheat, corn (maize), potatoes and sugar cane are the major crops produced in Birbhum. Canada Dam on the Mayurakshi at Massanjore is virtually on the border of Birbhum and the Dumka district in Jharkhand. Further down the Mayurakshi is the Tilpara Barrage at Suri. Land with irrigation facilities in 2001-02 totaled 2,763.9 km² (1,067.1 sq mi). There are five barrages, providing irrigation support. The district has thirteen cold storages.

Industry

Principal industries of the district include cotton and silk harvesting and weaving, rice and oilseed milling, lac harvesting, and metalware and pottery manufacture. Birbhum is a major centre of the cottage industries. Perhaps the most notable cottage industry here is a non-profit rural organization named Amar Kutir. Other main industries in Birbhum are agriculture-based industries, textiles, forestry, arts and crafts. Sriniketan is noted for its dairy industry and as a forestry centre. Some of the notable forms of cottage industries of Birbhum include textile—especially cotton and locally harvested tussar silk, jute works, batik, kantha stitch, macramé (weaving by knotting threads), leather, pottery and terracotta, solapith, woodcarving, bamboo and cane craft, metal works and various tribal crafts.There are 8,883 small and medium scale industries. Bakreshwar Thermal Power Station (210 MW x 3 + 210 MW x 2 under construction) is the only heavy industry in the district.

Subdivisions

The district comprises three subdivisions: Suri Sadar, Bolpur and Rampurhat. Suri Sadar subdivision consists of three municipalities (Suri, Dubrajpur and Sainthia) and seven community development blocs: Suri–I, Suri–II, Saithiya, Dubrajpur, Khayrashol, Rajnagar and Mahammad Bazar. Bolpur subdivision consists of Bolpur municipality and four community development blocs: Bolpur–Sriniketan, Ilambazar, Labhpur and Nanoor. Rampurhat subdivision consists of two municipalities (Rampurhat and Nalhati) and eight community development blocks: Mayureswar–I, Mayureswar–II, Rampurhat–I, Rampurhat–II, Murarai–I, Murarai–II, Nalhati–I and Nalhati–II. Suri is the district headquarters. There are 17 police stations, 19 development blocks, 6 municipalities and 167 gram panchayats in this district. Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocs which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 7 urban units: 6 municipalities and 1 census town. Nalhati municipality was established in 2000.

Suri Sadar subdivision

Suri Sadar subdivision has three municipalities: Suri, Dubrajpur and Sainthia. Gram panchayats and census towns under different community development blocks are: Suri–I with 7 gram panchayats, Suri–II with 6 gram panchayats, Sainthia with 12 gram panchayats and one census town: Ahmedpur, Dubrajpur with 10 gram panchayats, Khayrasol with 10 gram panchayats, Rajnagar with 5 gram panchayats and Mahammad Bazar with 12 gram panchayats.

Bolpur subdivision

This subdivision has one municipality at Bolpur. The number of gram panchayats under different community development blocks of this subdivision are as follows: Bolpur–Sriniketan – 9, Ilambazar – 9, Labhpur – 11, and Nanoor – 11.

Rampurhat subdivision

This sudvision has two municipalities at Rampurhat and Nalhati. The number of gram panchayats under different community development blocks of this subdivision are as follows: Mayureswar I – 9, Mayureswar II – 7, Rampurhat I – 9, Rampurhat II – 9, Murarai I – 7, Murarai II – 9, Nalhati I – 9, and Nalhati II – 6.

Legislative constituencies

The district is divided into 12 assembly constituencies (AC):[20] Nanoor (AC #283), Bolpur (AC #284), Labhpur (AC #285), Dubrajpur (AC #286), Rajnagar (AC #287), Suri (AC #288), Mahammad Bazar (AC #289), Mayureswar (AC #290), Rampurhat (AC #291), Hansan (AC #292), Nalhati (AC #293) and Murarai (AC #294). The constituencies of Nanoor, Rajnagar, Mayureswar and Hansan are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Rajnagar, Suri, Mahammad Bazar, Rampurhat, Hansan, Nalhati and Murarai assembly segments form the Birbhum (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for SC candidates. Nanoor, Bolpur, Labhpur, Dubrajpur and Mayureswar constituencies are part of the Bolpur (Lok Sabha constituency), which also contains two other assembly segments from the Bardhaman district.

Impact of delimitation of constituencies

As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 11 assembly constituencies:
Some Informations has been taken from Wikipedia

India Elections : BJP manifesto promises Income Tax exemption up to Rs 3 lakh

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) released its Lok Sabha election manifesto on Friday in New Delhi promising to deal with the scourge of terror with an iron hand and also announced a host of populist measures if voted to power. The Bharatiya...

Edit | Read full story »

India Elections : Govinda not to contest Election

Congress MP and Bollywood actor Govinda is not seeking a ticket from Mumbai North constituency for the upcoming Lok Sabha polls. The BJP has fielded former union minister Ram Naik from the same constituency. Bollywood actor-MP Govinda will not stand for...

Edit | Read full story »

India Elections : Complete Schedule of Lok Sabha Elections 2009

The Election commission on Monday announced dates for the 15th Lok Sabha elections , which will be held in five phases from April 16 to May 13. Lok Sabha poll schedule: 1st phase: April 16, 2009 (124 seats) 2nd phase: April 23, 2009(141...

Edit | Read full story »

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *