|Winner of General Elections 2009 in Birbhum is SATABDI ROY (AITC)|
|Satabdi Roy||AITC||Flowers and Grass||85 PRINCE ANWAR SHAH ROAD KOLKATA - 700033||486553|
|Braja Mukherjee||CPM||Hammer Sickle and Star||VILL - TILPARA (SOUTH)PO - SURIDIST - BIRBHUM||425034|
|Tapas Mukherjee||BJP||Lotus||DOCTOR PARA PO + PS - RAMPURHAT DIST.- BIRBHUM||47068|
|Asgar Ali (gajlu)||SP||Bicycle||VILL - BONORAMPUR PS - MURAROI DIST - BIRBHUM||17177|
|Shib Ratan Sharma||JMM||Bow & Arrow||DUBRAJPUR DARBESPARA PO - DUBRAJPUR DIST - BIRBHUM||15919|
|Radheshyam Singh||BSP||Elephant||NALHATI BAGANPARA WARD NO.-5 PO + PS - NALHATI DIST.- BIRBHUM||13388|
|Moulana Najrul Hak||AUDF||Lock and Key||VILL - SELARPUR PO - SAHAPUR DIST- BIRBHUM||12354|
|Year||Voter Turnout Percentage||Winner Candidate||Percentage||Party||Runnerup Candidate||Percentage||Party|
|2004||70.27||DOME RAM CHANDRA||51.45||CPM||GOPAL CHANDRA DAS||24.97||INC|
|1999||70.33||Ram Chandra Dome||51.65||CPM||Dr. Madan Lal Choudhury||29.93||BJP|
|1998||76.83||Dome Ram Chandra||49.07||CPM||Dr Madan Lal Choudhury||28.23||BJP|
|1996||83.18||Ramchandra Dome||50.35||CPM||Mamata Saha||36.48||INC|
|1991||75.21||Dome Ramchandra||49.71||CPM||Subhendu Mondal||25.47||INC|
|1989||76.28||Dome Ramchandra||50.88||CPM||Badal Bagdi||41.77||INC|
|1984||74.98||Gadahar Saha||50.32||CPM||Badal Bagdi||47.88||INC|
|1980||67.18||Gadadhar Saha||51.91||CPM||Badal Chandra Bagdi||42.48||INC(I)|
|1977||52.08||Gadadhar Saha||49||CPM||Birendaban Saha||38.04||INC|
EtymologyThe name Birbhum comes probably from the term Land (Bhumi) of the Brave (Bir). Some have opined that the district bears the name of Bir kings who ruled in the area. Bir in Santali language means forests. Therefore, it could also mean a land of forests.
PrehistoryThe area now known as Birbhum was inhabited from pre-historic times. Some of the archaeological sites related to 'Pandu Rajar Dhibi' of chalcolithic remains are located in Birbhum. Stone age implements have been found at several places in the district. According to the old Jain book Acharanga Sutra, the last (24th) great Tirthankara Mahavira had wandered through this land ("pathless country of Ladha (Rarh) in Vajjabhumi and Subbhabhumi (probably suhma)") in the 5th century, B.C. According to some historians, the spread of the Jain religion in the Rarh region was synonymous with the Aryanisation of the area. Based on Divyabdan, a Buddhist text, Dr. Atul Sur has inferred that Gautam Buddha probably traversed this area to go to Pundravardhana and Samatata. The Rarh region was part of the Maurya empire. It was subsequently included in the empire of the imperial Guptas, Shashanka and Harshavardhana. After dismemberment of Harshavardhana’s empire, the region was ruled by the Palas till 12th century AD, when overlordship of the area passed into the hands of the Senas. During the rule of the Pala dynasty Buddhism, particularly the Vajrayana cult, flourished here. In 7th century A.D., the Chinese traveller Xuanzang described some of the monasteries he visited.
Medieval ageThe 13th century witnessed the advent of Muslim rule in the region. However, control over the western parts of the district appears to have been nominal, and the area was ruled by the local Hindu chiefs, known as the Bir Rajas. The three towns of Hetampur, Birsingpur and Rajnagar contain their relics. Minhaj-i-Siraj, the author of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri mentions about Lakhnur, the headquarters or thanah of the Rarh wing of the Muslim rule and an important frontier post. The location of Lakhnur, though not yet identified, falls in Birbhum. Mythology has it that the forests of Bajrabhumi (west Birbhum) were hot-spots of Hindu and tantric activities. According to historian Dr. Atul Sur, the solitude of the less populated jungles of Bajrabhumi made it an ideal place for sacred rituals. Some authors have called Birbhum by the name Kamkoti which relates to its tantric heritage. Tantrics (including the Vajrayana, Shaktas), and Buddhists established many temples for tantra sadhana rituals and Shakti worship. Birbhum has many Shakti Peethas such as Tarapith, Bakreshwar, Kankalitala, Fullara near Labhpur, Sainthia and Nalhati. One of the famous Shakti worshippers of Tarapith was Bamdev, popularly known as Bama Khyapa.
Modern eraDuring the time of British East India Company, there was no existence of any administrative unit by the name Birbhum till 1787, and this area was administratively a part of Murshidabad district. In 1787 when the official designation "District Beerbhoom" started the District was much bigger and included "Bishenpore" or Bishnupur (now part of Bankura district) till 1793. Till the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the Santhal Pargana was also part of Birbhum, the district thus sprawled up to Deoghar in the west. The immediate reason then for separating the western tribal majority areas was the Santhal rebellion of 1855-56, which was quelled. Sidhu and Kanu are remembered in Birbhum as martyrs of the uprising.
ClimateThe climate on the western side is dry and extreme, but is relatively milder on the eastern side. During summer, the temperature can shoot well above 40 °C (104 °F) and in winters it can drop to around 10 °C (50 °F). It has been observed that rainfall is higher in the western areas as compared to the eastern areas. The annual average rainfall in Rajnagar is 1,405 millimetres (55.3 in) and in Nanoor it is 1,212 millimetres (47.7 in), mostly in the monsoon months (June to October).
RiversThere are many rivers that flow over Birbhum, such as Ajay, Mayurakshi (Mor), Kopai, Bakreshwar, Brahmani, Dvarka, Hinglo, Chapala, Bansloi, Pagla etc. A project on the Mayurakshi that includes the Tilpara Barrage (near Suri), provides irrigation for about 600,000 acres (2,428 km²). Almost all the rivers originate higher up on the Chota Nagpur plateau and flow across Birbhum in a west-east direction. These river are furious during the monsoons but shrink during the dry summer months. The cyclical rotation of drought and floods of the rivers destroy lives and property, and adds to the difficulties of life in the region.
AgricultureRice, legumes, wheat, corn (maize), potatoes and sugar cane are the major crops produced in Birbhum. Canada Dam on the Mayurakshi at Massanjore is virtually on the border of Birbhum and the Dumka district in Jharkhand. Further down the Mayurakshi is the Tilpara Barrage at Suri. Land with irrigation facilities in 2001-02 totaled 2,763.9 km² (1,067.1 sq mi). There are five barrages, providing irrigation support. The district has thirteen cold storages.
IndustryPrincipal industries of the district include cotton and silk harvesting and weaving, rice and oilseed milling, lac harvesting, and metalware and pottery manufacture. Birbhum is a major centre of the cottage industries. Perhaps the most notable cottage industry here is a non-profit rural organization named Amar Kutir. Other main industries in Birbhum are agriculture-based industries, textiles, forestry, arts and crafts. Sriniketan is noted for its dairy industry and as a forestry centre. Some of the notable forms of cottage industries of Birbhum include textile—especially cotton and locally harvested tussar silk, jute works, batik, kantha stitch, macramé (weaving by knotting threads), leather, pottery and terracotta, solapith, woodcarving, bamboo and cane craft, metal works and various tribal crafts.There are 8,883 small and medium scale industries. Bakreshwar Thermal Power Station (210 MW x 3 + 210 MW x 2 under construction) is the only heavy industry in the district.
SubdivisionsThe district comprises three subdivisions: Suri Sadar, Bolpur and Rampurhat. Suri Sadar subdivision consists of three municipalities (Suri, Dubrajpur and Sainthia) and seven community development blocs: Suri–I, Suri–II, Saithiya, Dubrajpur, Khayrashol, Rajnagar and Mahammad Bazar. Bolpur subdivision consists of Bolpur municipality and four community development blocs: Bolpur–Sriniketan, Ilambazar, Labhpur and Nanoor. Rampurhat subdivision consists of two municipalities (Rampurhat and Nalhati) and eight community development blocks: Mayureswar–I, Mayureswar–II, Rampurhat–I, Rampurhat–II, Murarai–I, Murarai–II, Nalhati–I and Nalhati–II. Suri is the district headquarters. There are 17 police stations, 19 development blocks, 6 municipalities and 167 gram panchayats in this district. Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocs which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 7 urban units: 6 municipalities and 1 census town. Nalhati municipality was established in 2000.
Suri Sadar subdivisionSuri Sadar subdivision has three municipalities: Suri, Dubrajpur and Sainthia. Gram panchayats and census towns under different community development blocks are: Suri–I with 7 gram panchayats, Suri–II with 6 gram panchayats, Sainthia with 12 gram panchayats and one census town: Ahmedpur, Dubrajpur with 10 gram panchayats, Khayrasol with 10 gram panchayats, Rajnagar with 5 gram panchayats and Mahammad Bazar with 12 gram panchayats.
Bolpur subdivisionThis subdivision has one municipality at Bolpur. The number of gram panchayats under different community development blocks of this subdivision are as follows: Bolpur–Sriniketan – 9, Ilambazar – 9, Labhpur – 11, and Nanoor – 11.
Rampurhat subdivisionThis sudvision has two municipalities at Rampurhat and Nalhati. The number of gram panchayats under different community development blocks of this subdivision are as follows: Mayureswar I – 9, Mayureswar II – 7, Rampurhat I – 9, Rampurhat II – 9, Murarai I – 7, Murarai II – 9, Nalhati I – 9, and Nalhati II – 6.
Legislative constituenciesThe district is divided into 12 assembly constituencies (AC): Nanoor (AC #283), Bolpur (AC #284), Labhpur (AC #285), Dubrajpur (AC #286), Rajnagar (AC #287), Suri (AC #288), Mahammad Bazar (AC #289), Mayureswar (AC #290), Rampurhat (AC #291), Hansan (AC #292), Nalhati (AC #293) and Murarai (AC #294). The constituencies of Nanoor, Rajnagar, Mayureswar and Hansan are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Rajnagar, Suri, Mahammad Bazar, Rampurhat, Hansan, Nalhati and Murarai assembly segments form the Birbhum (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for SC candidates. Nanoor, Bolpur, Labhpur, Dubrajpur and Mayureswar constituencies are part of the Bolpur (Lok Sabha constituency), which also contains two other assembly segments from the Bardhaman district.
Impact of delimitation of constituenciesAs per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 11 assembly constituencies:
Some Informations has been taken from Wikipedia
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